The article describes the results of a study of environmental problems that intensely limit socioeconomic development in Central Asia. The authors analyse the current environmental problems as follows. The loss of biodiversity and the complexity of the network of protected natural areas. Insufficient level of municipal solid waste processing, energy efficiency problems, in particular, the deterioration of the energy system. There are as well the imbalance between hydropower, irrigated agriculture and the environment, problems of the Aral Sea. The article proposes solution methods, including amendments to the legislation, i.e. the adoption of managerial decisions, as well as strengthening judicial control over compliance with the law. Gaps in the legislative regulation of environmental safety are examined. Along with policies at the national, regional and international levels. As well as future trends in the distribution of global resources that will be effective in protecting the environment, including the activities of The Regional Environmental Centre for Central Asia (hereinafter – CAREC). The article analyses the basic environmental rights of citizens as well as cases and consequences of violation of such rights.