The EC and other eco-labelling schemes; their voluntary nature; "cradle-to-grave" or "single-issue" bases.
Organisation of the EC scheme and the procedure for setting eco-labelling criteria. Applying for an eco-label Costs of participation. The Commission's proposal for a revised scheme.
Compatibility of the EC scheme with the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT); whether or not eco-labelling schemes fall within the Agreement; the requirements which would then apply and resulting legal problems. The inclusion in eco-labelling criteria of production processes and methods (PPMs) and consequent difficulties for producers based outside the EC.
Conclusion that despite current difficulties (lack of transparency, proliferation of schemes, slowness of implementation, questions of recognition of mutual equivalence of standards, reliance on PPMs, obtaining certification for exporters from developing countries, and the place of the TBT Agreement), the EC scheme remains a valuable marketing tool.European Energy and Environmental Law Review