Ireland has one of the least healthy populations in the European Union. It is amongst the very highest for rates of premature death, disability years and societal harm caused by poor diet and alcohol abuse. In response, the Irish Government has introduced two new laws. The first sets higher rates of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks, as has been done elsewhere. The second, more controversially, restricts the marketing of alcohol in a variety of ways. The imposition of minimum unit pricing and the exertion of additional controls over advertising, sponsorship and branded clothing are all part of a range of measures designed to reduce alcohol misuse. Most significantly, a suite of compulsory health warnings have been proposed for labels. This has raised the ire of producers, retailers, and organizations opposed to protectionism. Noting the limitations placed on these schemes by international legal obligations, this report examines the problems and solutions available to contemporary legislators in Member States such as Ireland who seek the amelioration of public health issues through legislative and other controls.