One of the key aspects of national and international arbitrations is the manner in which evidence is gathered and presented to the arbitral tribunal or panel. The collaboration of parties in these matters can shape the outcome of almost every dispute. However, the approach of international courts and tribunals such as the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal (IUSCT) toward the concept of presenting and producing evidence is subject to many issues, for example, the rules of evidence, applicable law, the arbitrators’ legal background, the inherent power of courts and tribunals and the principle of fair trial. Truly, no aspect of international arbitration has caused as much friction as the issue of discovery. The scope of discovery available to parties varies, and is often a delicate issue in international disputes as parties from different legal backgrounds frequently have very different expectations as to how the evidence-gathering process should be conducted.
In brief, this article does not promote the notion that liberal discovery is a fundamental right, rather it focuses on developing a model that treats cost effectiveness as a fundamental issue which should be examined when drafting procedural rules.Journal of International Arbitration