The African Arbitration Association was established in 2018 and its headquarters is in Kigali, Rwanda. This choice of location signals that Rwanda has made meaningful strides in improving its arbitration environment, at least in the opinion of African states. Many questions will arise as to whether Rwanda-seated arbitrations do indeed rest in a legally friendly environment, and receive optimum support of courts which act to foster the efficiency and effectiveness of arbitrations. The interplay between courts and arbitral tribunals in dealing with Rwanda-seated arbitrations is the subject of this article. Party autonomy, which broadly underscores the freedom of the parties to decide how their disputes should be resolved, is one of the most important principles in arbitration. This principle naturally translates to the autonomy of the arbitral process and notably the freedom of this process from undue judicial interference. While courts are indispensable in the success equation of the arbitral process, too much judicial intervention in matters of arbitration may have serious repercussions on the efficiency of arbitration. This article examines the autonomy of the arbitral process under the law and practice of arbitration in Rwanda. In doing so, the article discusses different practices in the leading places of arbitration on the interplay between courts and arbitral tribunals in dealing with matters of arbitration and compares these with the corresponding law and practice governing Rwanda-seated arbitrations. It concludes that, with the pro-arbitration stance often demonstrated by the courts in Rwanda and their sparing involvement in the arbitral process, the arbitration environment is as friendly as it is in most other states that are signatory to the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York Convention, 1958).