In this report we analysed publicly available cases decided by courts of Mainland China (‘PRC courts’) from 2001 to 2021 in which the court refused or rejected party’s application for recognition and enforcement of foreign (including Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan) arbitral awards, totalling thirty-seven cases. Here we provide factual summary for each case and conducted statistics with respect to their arbitration-related characteristics and PRC court’s ground of decision. With this report, one can see that PRC courts are extremely cautious in refusing or rejecting recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards. Lack of valid arbitration agreement, and violation of arbitration agreement/arbitration rules/law of the seat, are the two major causes that led to the PRC Courts’ refusal of recognition and enforcement. However, one should note that non-compliance of national laws in Mainland China may undermine recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards.