It is no secret that some lawyers, and perhaps civil law lawyers in particular, have felt frustration with the status quo of the evidentiary processes of international arbitration, premised primarily on the International Bar Association (IBA) Rules on Taking of Evidence in International Arbitration (‘IBA Rules’). This outcry was vocalized at the Russian Arbitration Association’s Conference held in Moscow in April 2017, which ultimately contributed to the formation of a Working Group that developed the Rules on the Efficient Conduct of Proceedings in International Arbitration (‘Prague Rules’). This article strives to elucidate the mechanics of the Prague Rules. An understanding of these new provisions, however, cannot be achieved in a vacuum; as such, much of the analysis will touch upon the IBA Rules and their relationship to the Prague Rules. This article provides a critical, comparative analysis of the Prague Rules.