The dispute resolution system of Double Tax Agreements (DTAs) has been a major focus for both tax authorities and researchers around the world. For several years Article 25 of the Model Tax Convention of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development on Income and on Capital (‘OECD Model Tax Convention’), and Article 25 of the United Nations Model Double Taxation Convention between Developed and Developing Countries (‘UN Model Tax Convention’) had relied on a negotiation-based Mutual Agreement Procedure (MAP) as the only mechanism for the resolution of disputes arising from a tax treaty. In order to improve the function of the MAP mechanism, the OECD, in 2008, and the UN Tax Committee, in 2011, introduced a binding ad hoc arbitration clause in Article 25(5) of their respective Model Tax Conventions. However, the OECD and UN Model Tax Conventions have reserved very limited role for arbitration in resolving tax treaty disputes. After establishing that the inclusion of the current arbitration clauses in the OECD and UN Model Tax Conventions have not assuaged the tensions created by divergent interpretation or application of rules espoused in DTAs, this article examines possible techniques for improving the dispute resolution system of DTAs.