On 25 July 2022, the World Trade Organization (WTO) issued an arbitration award under Article 25 of the Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) on the appeal from the Panel Report in Turkey–Pharmaceuticals. This is the first use of the DSU Article 25 arbitration proceedings for the review of a WTO panel decision. As such, the case is highly significant in that it demonstrates how this alternative dispute settlement method can be successfully utilized to fulfil the function of appellate review after the Appellate Body (AB) became paralysed. Moreover, this innovative use of Article 25 arbitration may suggest a long-term solution in the reform of WTO dispute settlement. With respect to substantive legal issues, this case is also noteworthy, for it dealt with the question of public health and WTO law, a particularly sensitive topic in the post-pandemic era. This essay provides a critical review of the findings of the Panel and the Arbitrators on the substantive issues, while appraising the systemic significance of this first appeal arbitration.